European Journal of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry

The Early Erosive and Abrasive Challenge: A Profilometric, Electron Microscopic and Microhardness Study Using Human, Bovine and Ovine Enamel


Purpose: The aim of the current study is to develop a novel method to investigate the
accuracy of 3D scanners and digital articulation systems. Materials and Methods: An
upper and a lower poured stone model were created by taking impression of fully dentate
male (fifty years old) participant. Titanium spheres were added to the models to allow
for an easily recognisable geometric shape for measurement after scanning and digital
articulation. Measurements were obtained using a Coordinate Measuring Machine
to record volumetric error, articulation error and clinical effect error. Three scanners
were compared, including the Imetric 3D iScan d104i, Shining 3D AutoScan-DS100 and
3Shape D800, as well as their respective digital articulation software packages. Stoneglass
Industries PDC digital articulation system was also applied to the Imetric scans
for comparison with the CMM measurements. Results: All the scans displayed low volumetric
error (p>0.05), indicating that the scanners themselves had a minor contribution
to the articulation and clinical effect errors. The PDC digital articulation system was
found to deliver the lowest average errors, with good repeatability of results. Conclusion:
The new measuring technique in the current study was able to assess the scanning
and articulation accuracy of the four systems investigated. The PDC digital articulation
system using Imetric scans was recommended as it displayed the lowest articulation error
and clinical effect error with good repeatability. The low errors from the PDC system
may have been due to its use of a 3D axis for alignment rather than the use of a best fit.

CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/
Computer Aided Manufacturing)
Dimensional Measurement Accuracy
Extraoral Scanner


Dr James Clark Field, Dr Paula Jane Waterhouse, Dr Matthew John German

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