European Journal of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry

Evaluation of Monomer Leaching from Resin Cement Through Dentin


European Journal of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry (2019) 27, 10–17



The aim of the study was to evaluate the elution of Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), Urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), Bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA),
and Bisphenol A (BPA), from a dual -cured resin cement through human dentin, under constant
positive pulpal pressure. Ten human dentin disks were adjusted into a custom made testing device and transparent glass slabs were luted with Variolink II cement, under a steady pressure. The
device was filled with Ringer’s solution and a pressure of 14.1 cm H2O was applied. Eluates were
retrieved from each one of the ten specimens at 9 time intervals. All the samples were analyzed
by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). TEGDMA was detected from the second
and UDMA was detected from the fourth time interval. The highest average concentration of
TEGDMA and UDMA was detected in the 3 day time interval. Time had a significant effect on
their elution. BPA and BisGMA were not detected in any sample at any time interval. The clinical relevance of the present study is that the concentration of the eluted monomers, under the
conditions that were chosen, did not reach toxic levels for the pulp.


Bisphenol A (BPA)
Bisphenol A Glycerolate
Dimethacrylate (BisGMA)
Dentin Permeability
Triethylene Glycol
Dimethacrylate (TEGDMA)
Urethane Dimethacrylate (UDMA)



Dr. Christina Kerezoudi *
(Dentist, PhD, Msc)

Dr. Victoria F. Samanidou *

(Professor of Analytical Chemistry)

Dr. Christos Gogos *


(Assistant Professor of Endodontics)


(Professor of Endodontics)
(Professor of Basic Dental Sciences)

Address for Correspondence


Dr. Christina Kerezoudi

In vivo radioactive tracer experiments have demonstrated that radioactive
compounds can move either direction across dentin: from the systemic circulation to dentin and vice versa,1,2 so dentin is considered as “a permeable
barrier”.3 The thousands of dentinal tubules that transverse the dentin allow
ions, fluids, minute particles and bacteria to penetrate through dentin.3,4 Dentin’s permeability varies, even in different areas of the same tooth section and
this phenomenon has been attributed to distinct differences in the structure
of dentin, from area to area.5 So, factors like the age of the tooth, the presence
or the absence of the smear layer, the proximity of the dental material to the
pulp, and also the diameter, the density and the length of the dentinal tubules
have an effect on dentin’s permeability. The area of dentin in close contact
with a dental material is a significant factor that it should be considered in
permeability studies and in reality, the area of dentin which is available for
diffusion is defined by the diameter, the density and the length of the dentinal
tubules.3,4 On the other hand, some compounds penetrate through dentin
more easily than others. The easiness of a compound to travel across dentin
depends upon several factors like the molecular size, the charge, the hydrophobic or hydrophilic nature, the chemical affinity of the compound with the
dentin, the diffusion coefficient and the applied concentration of the compound.3,6 Over more, the outward movement of the dentinal tubule fluid has
a competitive action against the passage of the compounds.7,8 Reduced percentages of several compounds were detected when a positive pulpal pressure was applied.9,10 Thus, the positive pulpal pressure is a factor that should
be considered in in vitro permeability studies. In human teeth, the positive
pulpal pressure has been estimated at about 14.1 cm H2O.11


Dr. Dimitrios Tziafas *

Dr. Georgios Palaghias *


Evaluation of Monomer
Leaching from a Resin
Cement Through Dentin

Email: [email protected]


* Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Received: 23.08.18
Accepted: 21.01.19
doi: 10.1922/EJPRD_01854Kerezoudi08

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • - Published by Dennis Barber Journals.


Copyright ©2019 by Dennis Barber Ltd. All rights reserved.


Dr. Christina Kerezoudi, Dr. Victoria F. Samanidou, Dr. Christos Gogos, Dr. Dimitrios Tziafas, Dr. Georgios Palaghias

Articles from this issue

Title / DOI Access Page Start Page End Purchase
The Effects of Colored Pigments on the Translucency of Experimental Dental Resin Composites
no access 3 9 £10.00
Evaluation of Monomer Leaching from Resin Cement Through Dentin
no access 10 17 £10.00
Fit Accuracy of Pressed and Milled Lithium Disilicate Inlays Fabricated From Conventional Impressions or a Laboratory-Based Digital Workflow
no access 18 25 £10.00
Evaluation of the Internal and Marginal Discrepancies of Co-Cr Metal Copings Prepared via CAD/CAM and Conventional Casting
no access 26 31 £10.00
Adequately Prepared? A Study Using an Innovative Computer Application to Measure Clinical Crown Convergence Angles Achieved by Students at a UK Dental School
no access 32 38 £10.00
Clinical Performance of Nanofilled and Microhybrid Direct Composite Restorations on Endodontically Treated Teeth
no access 39 47 £10.00
  • free access Free Access
  • no access No Access
  • full access Full Access